Here Are All of the Scientists, Writers and More Who Have Won a 2019 Nobel Prize

Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Prize is announcing its winners for 2019 this week, and all eyes are on Greta Thunberg, the Swedish teenage climate change activist widely seen as the frontrunner for the Peace Prize.

Thunberg’s category, the winner of which will be announced on Friday, is one of five created by Alfred Nobel in his third and last will in 1895, which left much of his wealth to establishing a prize for those who “conferred the greatest benefit to humankind” during the preceding year.

This year, there are 301 candidates (223 individuals, and 78 organizations) up for the Peace Prize, according to the Nobel Foundation.

The nominees in all categories — whose names are never announced and cannot be revealed until 50 years have passed — are picked by members of academies, university professors, scientists, previous Nobel Laureates, and members of parliamentary assemblies.

Even so, three Norwegian lawmakers told Norwegian media outlet VG in March they had nominated Thunberg because “the climate threat may be one of the most important causes of war and conflict.”

Greta Thunberg

The Norwegian Nobel Committee is responsible for selecting the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates, with the winners chosen through a majority vote.

They will receive their prize — a medal, a certificate, and a cash award of about $900,000, according to Time — in December.

See below for a list of winners for the 2019 Nobel Prize.

2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

This year’s prize in physiology or medicine was awarded to William G. Kaelin Jr., Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe, and Gregg L. Semenza for their “discoveries in how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability,” according to a press release.

The trio’s work — which involved identifying “molecular machinery that regulates the activity of genes in response to varying levels of oxygen” — was recognized for helping pave the way “for promising new strategies to fight anaemia, cancer and many other diseases.”

2019 Nobel Prize in Physics

The prize, whose past recipients include Albert Einstein and Marie Curie, will be announced on Tuesday.

2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The award for chemistry, which the Nobel website says was “the most important science” for Alfred Nobel’s own work, will be announced on Wednesday.

2019 Nobel Prize in Literature

This year, winners for literature from both 2018 and 2019 will be announced on Thursday. No prize was awarded last year amid sexual harassment and abuse allegations against Jean-Claude Arnault, the husband of an academy member and a recipient of academy funds, according to the Washington Post. Arnault received a two-year prison sentence in Sweden after being found guilty of raping a woman in 2011, the BBC reported in October 2018. The scandal prompted academy head Sara Danius and others to step down, and Swedish King Carl XVI Gustaf said in a statement the prize announcement would be postponed so the academy could “focus on restoring its reputation.”

2019 Nobel Prize in Peace

The peace prize, which last year went to Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad for helping to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war, will be announced on Friday.

2019 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences

The prize in economic sciences, which has been awarded 50 times, will be announced on Monday, Oct. 14.

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